Article Research| Volume 62, ISSUE 4, P285-296, July 2014

Pharmacogenomics in the nursing literature: An integrative review



      Pharmacogenomics is a rapidly growing component of personalized health care, and nurses must be competent to deliver genomic-focused nursing care.


      We conducted an integrative review of pharmacogenomics in the nursing literature. A comprehensive search of the nursing literature was conducted using the key words pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics. A total of 47 unique articles were included.


      Articles represented mainly narrative reviews, with limited discussions of the implications for nursing practice, education, or research. As such, they provide limited direction for advancing either clinical practice or scientific inquiry.


      This review serves as a call to action for more systematic and empirical publications addressing pharmacogenomics in nursing practice, education, and research. Nurses must be involved in and contribute to interdisciplinary conversations and burgeoning clinical practice initiatives related to pharmacogenomics.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Nursing Outlook
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Allen M.
        • Levy J.
        Mapping the general literature of American nursing.
        Journal of the Medical Library Association. 2006; 94: E43-E48
        • Ama T.
        • Bounmythavong S.
        • Blaze J.
        • Weismann M.
        • Marienau M.S.
        • Nicholson W.T.
        Implications of pharmacogenomics for anesthesia providers.
        American Association of Nursing Anesthetists Journal. 2010; 78: 393-399
        • American Nurses Association
        Genetics/genomics nursing: Scope & standards of practice.
        American Nurses Association, Silver Springs, MD2007
        • Anderson-Pompa K.
        • Foster A.
        • Parker L.
        • Wilks L.
        • Cheek D.J.
        • Mill T.D.
        • McSherry G.
        Genetics and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia.
        Critical Care Nursing. 2008; 28: 32-36
        • Arnaout R.
        • Buck T.
        • Roulette P.
        • Sukhatme V.
        Predicting the cost and pace of pharmacogenomic advances: An evidence-based study.
        Clinical Chemistry. 2013; 59: 649-657
        • Anderson D.
        A review of systemic opioids commonly used for labor pain relief.
        Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. 2011; 56: 222-239
        • Aronson J.
        A manifesto for clinical pharmacology from principles to practice.
        British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2010; 70: 3-13
        • Beery T.A.
        • Hern M.J.
        Genetic practice, education, and research: An overview for advanced practice nurses.
        Clinical Nurse Specialists. 2004; 18: 126-132
        • Beery T.A.
        • Smith C.R.
        Genetics/genomics advances to influence care for patients with chronic disease.
        Rehabilitation Nursing Journal. 2011; 36 (88): 54-59
        • Bray J.
        • Clarke C.
        • Brennan G.
        • Muncey T.
        Should we be 'pushing meds'? The implications of pharmacogenomics.
        Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 2008; 15: 357-364
        • Calzone K.
        • Cashion A.
        • Feetham S.
        • Jenkins J.
        • Prows C.
        • Williams J.
        • Wung S.
        Nurses transforming health care using genetics and genomics.
        Nursing Outlook. 2010; 58: 26-35
        • Chadwell K.
        Clinical practice on the horizon: Personalized medicine.
        Clinical Nurse Specialists. 2013; 27: 36-43
        • Cheek D.J.
        What you need to know about pharmacogenomics.
        Nursing. 2013; 43: 44-48
        • Chummun H.
        Understanding pharmacogneomics: Applications in prescribing.
        Nurse Prescribing. 2011; 9: 402-407
        • Consensus Panel
        Essentials of genetic and genomic nursing: Competencies, curricula guidelines, and outcome indicators.
        2nd Edition. American Nurses Association, Silver Spring, MD2009
        • Davies M.A.
        • Conley Y.
        • Puskar K.
        Incorporating evidence from pharmacologic and pharmacogenetic studies of atypical antipsychotic drugs into advanced psychiatric nursing practice.
        Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 2010; 46: 98-107
        • Davies M.A.
        • Conley Y.
        • Roth B.L.
        Functional SNPs in genes encoding the 5-HT2A receptor modify the affinity and potency of several atypical antipsychotic drugs.
        Biological Research for Nursing. 2011; 13: 55-60
        • Ensor C.R.
        • Cahoon Jr., W.D.
        Current controversies in the pharmacogenomics of clopidogrel.
        Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing. 2009; 24: 105-109
        • Evans W.
        • McLeod H.
        Pharmacogenomics—Drug disposition, drug targets, & side effects.
        New Engl Journal of Medicine. 2003; 348: 538-549
        • Fleeman N.
        • Dickson R.
        Providing patients with information on pharmacogenetic testing.
        Nursing Standard. 2009; 23: 46-48
        • Frazier L.
        • Meininger J.
        • Halsey Lea D.
        • Boerwinkle E.
        Genetic discoveries and nursing implications for complex disease prevention and management.
        Journal of Professional Nursing. 2004; 20: 222-229
        • Frazier L.
        • Wung S.-F.
        • Sparks E.
        • Eastwood C.
        Cardiovascular nursing on human genomics: What do cardiovascular nurses need to know about congestive heart failure?.
        Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing. 2009; 24: 80-85
        • Greco K.
        • Tinley S.
        • Seibert D.
        Essential genetic and genomic competencies for nurses with graduate degrees.
        American Nurses Association and International Society of Nurses in Genetics, Silver Spring, MD2012
        • Hamburg M.
        • Collins F.
        The path to personalized medicine.
        New England Journal of Medicine. 2010; 363: 301-304
        • Howe L.A.
        Pharmacogenomics and management of cardiovascular disease.
        The Nurse Practitioner. 2009; 34: 28-35
        • Howe L.A.
        Pharmacogenomics and management of cardiovascular disease.
        Nursing. 2011; 41 Suppl: 1-7
        • Howington L.
        • Riddlesperger K.
        • Cheek D.J.
        Essential nursing competencies for genetics and genomics: Implications for critical care.
        Critical Care Nursing. 2011; 31: e1-e7
        • Howland R.H.
        Personalized drug therapy with pharmacogenetics. Part 1: Pharmacokinetics.
        Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. 2006; 44: 13-16
        • Howland R.H.
        Personalized drug therapy with pharmacogenetics. Part 2: Pharmacodynamics.
        Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. 2006; 44: 13-16
        • Kalow W.
        • Tang B.
        • Endrenyl L.
        Hypothesis: Comparisions of inter- and intra-individual variations can subsitute for twin studies in drug research.
        Pharmacogenetics. 1998; 8: 283-289
        • Kaplan M.
        • Mahon S.M.
        Tamoxifen benefits and CYP2D6 testing in women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
        Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. 2013; 17: 174-179
        • Kayser S.R.
        Pharmacogenomics and the potential for personalized therapeutics in cardiovascular disease.
        Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing. 2007; 22: 104-107
        • Kelly P.A.
        Pharmacogenomics: Why standard codeine doses can have serious toxicities or no therapeutic effect.
        Oncology Nursing Forum. 2013; 40: 322-324
        • Krauter R.R.
        • Cook S.S.
        Pharmacogenetics and the pharmacological management of depression.
        Nurse Practitioner. 2011; 36 (quiz 21–12): 14-21
        • Kudzma E.C.
        Cultural competence: Cardiovascular medications.
        Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing. 2001; 16 (169): 152-160
        • Kudzma E.C.
        • Carey E.T.
        Pharmacogenomics: Personalizing drug therapy.
        American Journal of Nursing. 2009; 109: 50-57
        • Kurnat-Thoma E.L.
        Genetics and genomics: The scientific drivers of personalized medicine.
        Annual Review of Nursing Research. 2011; 29: 27-54
        • Landino J.
        • Buckley J.
        • Roy J.M.
        • Villagra D.
        • Gorowski K.
        • Kocherla M.
        • Ruano G.
        Guidance of pharmacotherapy in a complex psychiatric case by CYP450 DNA typing.
        Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. 2011; 23: 459-463
        • Lea D.H.
        A new world view of genetics service models.
        Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 2000; 5 (Manuscript 5)
        • Lea D.H.
        Tailoring drug therapy with pharmacogenetics.
        Nursing. 2005; 35: 22-23
        • Lea D.H.
        Basic genetics and genomics: A primer for nurses.
        Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 2009; 14: 1-13
        • Lea D.H.
        • Skirton H.
        • Read C.Y.
        • Williams J.K.
        Implications for educating the next generation of nurses on genetics and genomics in the 21st century.
        Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2011; 43: 3-12
        • Melnyk B.M.
        • Fineout-Overholt E.
        Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare. A guide to best practice.
        Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA2005
        • Miaskowski C.
        Understanding the genetic determinants of pain and pain management.
        Seminars in Oncology Nursing. 2009; 25: S1-S7
        • Moher D.
        • Liberati A.
        • Tetzlaff J.
        • Altman D.
        • The PRISMA Group
        Preferred rerporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement.
        Annals of Internal Medicine. 2009; 151: 264-269
        • Murlow C.
        The medical review article: State of the science.
        Annals of Internal Medicine. 1987; 106: 485-488
        • Mutsatsa S.
        • Currid T.J.
        Pharmacogenetics: a reality or misplaced optimism?.
        Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 2013; 20: 314-320
      1. National Human Genome Research Institute. (2012). Frequently asked questions about genetic & genomic science. Retrieved from

      2. National Institute of Nursing Research. (2011). Bringing science to life: NINR strategic plan. Retrieved from

        • Nicol M.J.
        The variation of response to pharmacotherapy: Pharmacogenetics—A new perspective to 'the right drug for the right person'.
        MEDSURG Nursing. 2003; 12: 242-249
        • Novak B.
        Significant pharmacogenetic and molecular factors in prescribing.
        Nurse Prescribing. 2007; 5: 358-361
        • O'Malley P.
        Pharmacogenomics for the clinical nurse specialist–genetics, prescribing, and outcomes.
        Clinical Nurse Specialists. 2011; 25: 110-112
        • Patel H.
        • Ursan I.
        • Zueger P.
        • Cavallari L.
        • Pickard A.
        Stakeholder views on pharmacogenomic testing.
        Pharmacotherapy. 2013; 34: 151-165
        • Peskorn S.
        • Hatt C.
        How pharmacogenomics (PG) are changing practice: Implications for prescribers, their patients, and the healthcare system (PG series part 1).
        Journal of Psychiatr Practice. 2013; 19: 142-149
      3. Pharmacogenomics Research Network. (n.d.). About PGRN. Retrieved from

      4. PharmGKB. (2013a). CPIC: Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium. Retrieved from

      5. PharmGKB. (2013b). CPIC gene-drug pairs. Retrieved from

      6. PharmGKB. (2014). Projects. Retrieved from

        • Prows C.A.
        Clinical aspects of genomics: an update.
        Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 2008; 13 (1–1)
        • Prows C.A.
        Infusion of pharmacogenetics into cancer care.
        Seminars in Oncology Nursing. 2011; 27: 45-53
        • Prows C.A.
        • Beery T.A.
        Pharmacogenetics in critical care: Atrial fibrillation as an exemplar.
        Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 2008; 20 (vi-vii): 223-231
        • Prows C.A.
        • Prows D.R.
        Medication selection by genotype: How genetics is changing drug prescribing and efficacy.
        American Journal of Nursing. 2004; 104 (quiz 71): 60-70
        • Prows C.A.
        • Saldana S.N.
        Nurses' genetic/genomics competencies when medication therapy is guided by pharmacogenetic testing: children with mental health disorders as an exemplar.
        Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 2009; 24: 179-188
        • Read C.Y.
        Pharmacogenomics: an evolving paradigm for drug therapy.
        MEDSURG Nursing. 2002; 11: 122-124
        • Redekop W.K.
        • Mladsi D.
        The faces of personalized medicine: A framework for understanding its meaning and scope.
        Value in Health. 2013; 16: S4-S9
      7. RFA-NR-14-002, Centers of Excellence in Self-management Research. (2014). Retrieved from

        • Ross S.
        • Anand S.
        • Joseph P.
        • Paré G.
        Promises and challenges of pharmacogenetics: An overview of study design, methodological & statistical issues.
        Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases. 2012; 1: 1-13
        • Santos E.
        • Edwards T.
        • Floria-Santos M.
        • Rogatto S.
        • Achatz M.
        • MacDonald D.
        Integration of Genomics in Cancer Care.
        Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2013; 45: 43-51
      8. Science. (n.d.) Merriam-Webster online. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-

      9. Study. (n.d.) Merriam-Webster online. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-

        • Theoktisto K.M.
        Pharmacokinetic considerations in the treatment of pediatric behavioral issues.
        Pediatric Nursing. 2009; 35: 369-374
        • Turner R.M.
        From the lab to the prescription pad: Genetics, CYP450 analysis, and medication response.
        Journal of Child Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. 2013; 26: 119-123
      10. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2013). Table of pharmacogenomic biomarkers in drug labels. Retrieved from

        • Walker L.
        • Avant K.
        Strategies for theory construction in nursing.
        5th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ2011
        • Whirl-Carrillo M.
        • McDonagh E.M.
        • Hebert J.M.
        • Gong L.
        • Sangkuhl K.
        • Thorn C.F.
        • Altman R.B.
        • Klein T.E.
        Pharmacogenomics knowledge for personalized medicine.
        Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2012; 92: 414-417
        • Wung S.
        Advanced practice. Genetic advances in coronary artery disease.
        MEDSURG Nursing. 2002; 11: 296-300
        • Zdanowicz M.
        Concepts in pharmacogenomics.
        American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Bethesda, MD2010