- Buckeridge D.
- Huang A.
- Hanley J.
- Kelome A.
- Reidel K.
- Verma A.
- Tamblyn R.
- Miller M.
- Stürmer T.
- Azrael D.
- Levin R.
- Solomon D.H.
- Duncan D.T.
- Zweig S.
- Hambrick H.R.
- Palamar J.J.
- Gaither J.R.
- Shabanova V.
- Leventhal J.M.
- Kane J.M.
- Colvin J.D.
- Bartlett A.H.
- Hall M.
Actuaries estimate four years of opioid crisis costs to the economy as $ 631 million.
America's Drug Overdose Epidemic: Data to Action.
- Alpert A.E.
- Evans W.N.
- Lieber E.M.T.
- Powell D.
- Brennan F.
- Carr D.B.
- Cousins M.
- Phillips D.M.
Responses and Policy Actions
- Fernandes R.M.
- Cary M.
- Duarte G.
- Jesus G.
- Alarcão J.
- Torre C.
- Costa S.
- Costa J.
- Carneiro A.V.
- Lo C.C.
- Stephens R.C.
- Binswanger I.A.
- Stern M.F.
- Deyo R.A.
- Heagerty P.J.
- Cheadle A.
- Elmore J.G.
- Koepsell T.D.
Apply for a Practitioner Waiver.
The Academy's Position
- 1Federal policymakers should pass legislation permanently allowing all four APRNs roles to prescribe buprenorphine and other medications for addiction to increase accessibility of this life-saving treatment for all patients regardless of location in all federal healthcare programs.
- 2The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services should increase and provide equitable reimbursement for MAT regardless of healthcare provider discipline.
- 3Increase funding to the National Institutes of Health and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration for the care of persons at risk of opioid use and those in vulnerable populations with acute and chronic pain who may be at risk of opioid dependence in particular.
- 4The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality should evaluate and disseminate innovative nursing care models, including telehealth to increase treatment access for severe OUDs, multimodal pain management and education on evidence-based treatment for OUDs.
- 5Policymakers are encouraged to endorse and fiscally support evidence-based harm reduction programs that recognize the health and humanitarian challenges faced by persons who use drugs.
- 6The Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) should develop and fund comprehensive health professional education on OUD screening, assessment and treatment and pain management.
- Origins of the opioid crisis and its enduring impacts.in: Working Paper 26500. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass2019 (Retrieved from)
- State Advocacy.2019 (Retrieved October 18from)
- Release from prison — A high risk of death for former inmates.New England Journal of Medicine. 2007; 356: 157-165https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmsa064115
- Pain management: A fundamental human right.Pain Medicine. 2015; 105: 205-221https://doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000268145.52345.55
- Risk of injury associated with opioid use in older adults.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2010; 58: 1664-1670https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03015.x
- America's Drug Overdose Epidemic: Data to Action.2020 (March 24Retrieved from)
- CDC WONDER.2019 (Retrieved from)
- Sexual Orientation Disparities in Prescription Opioid Misuse Among U.S. Adults.American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2019; 56: 17-26https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.07.032
- Effectiveness of needle and syringe programmes in people who inject drugs - An overview of systematic reviews.BMC Public Health. 2017; 17 (April 11PMID: 28399843): 309https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4210-2
- US National Trends in Pediatric Deaths from Prescription and Illicit Opioids, 1999-2016.JAMA Network Open. 2018; 1https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.6558
- Opioid-related critical care resource use in US Children's Hospitals.Pediatrics. 2018; 141https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-3335
- Drugs and prisoners: Treatment needs on entering prisons.The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 2000; 26: 229-245https://doi.org/10.1081/ada-100100602
- Prevention and Health Promotion Administration. Maryland maternal mortality review: 2019 annual report.Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, AnnapolisMD2018 (Retrieved from: https://www.acog.org/-/media/Sections/MD/Public/MMRreport2015.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20180807T2225153950)
- Opioid analgesics and the risk of fractures in older adults with arthritis.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2011; 59: 430-438https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03318.x
- Opioid misuse epidemic: Addressing opioid prescribing and organization initiatives for holistic, safe and compassionate care.Nursing Outlook. 2017; 65 (https://doi.org/10.10.16/outlook 2017,07.001): 477-479
- End discrimination against people with mental and substance use disorders: The evidence for stigma change.National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine, Washington, DC2016
- Pain management and the opioid epidemic: Balancing societal and individual benefits and risks of prescription opioid use.National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine, Washington, DC2017
- JCAHO Pain Management Standards Are Unveiled: Medical News & Perspectives.Journal of the American Medical Association,. 2000; 284: 428-429https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.4.423b
- A review of the efficacy and effectiveness of harm reduction strategies for alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs.Drug and Alcohol Review. 2009; 25: 611-624
- Actuaries estimate four years of opioid crisis costs to the economy as $ 631 million.Society of Actuaries Mortality and Longevity Strategic Research Program. 2019;
- Research Letter: Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistant Waivers to Prescribe Buprenorphine and State Scope of Practice Prescriptions.Journal of the American Medical Association. 2019; 321: 1407-1408
- Apply for a Practitioner Waiver.2020 (Retrieved from)https://www.samhsa.gov/medication-assisted-treatment/training-materials-resources/apply-for-practitioner-waiver
- Office of the Surgeon General, Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health.HHS, Washington, DC2016
- Opioid-Related Inpatient Stays and Emergency Department Visits Among Patients Aged 65 Years and Older, 2010 and 2015: Statistical Brief #244. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs.2018 (Rockville (MD) 2018)