- •Differences in perception about work environments were observed among multi-ethnic nurses.
- •Nurses’ job characteristics differed by sociodemographic factors.
- •Asians or Black nurses tended to work more in urban areas.
- •Younger nurses tended to have greater intention to leave a job than older nurses.
- •Nurses’ workforce participation should be understood in multiple social contexts.
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Work as an inclusive part of population health inequities research and prevention.American Journal of Public Health. 2018; 108: 306-311https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.304214
- Measuring the impact of organizational behaviors on work disability prevention and management.Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 2000; 10: 21-38
- Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions.Lancet (London, England). 2017; 389: 1453-1463https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30569-X
- Workplace discrimination: An additional stressor for internationally educated nurses.Ojin. 2015; 20: e1-e15https://doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol20No03PPT01
- Nurses' satisfaction with their work environment and the outcomes of clinical nursing supervision on nurses' experiences of well-being - A Norwegian study.Journal of Nursing Management. 2005; 13: 221-230https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2004.00527.x
- Factors influencing female registered nurses' work behavior.Health Services Research. 2006; 41: 860-866https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00527.x
- Organizational climate and employee mental health outcomes: A systematic review of studies in health care organizations.Health Care Management Review. 2015; 40: 254-271https://doi.org/10.1097/HMR.0000000000000026
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2021). Occupational outlook handbook, 2020-2021 edition, registered nurses. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/registered-nurses.htm
- Job satisfaction among health care workers: The role of gender and age.Revista Latino-Americana De Enfermagem. 2013; 21: 1314-1320https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-1169.3224.2369
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2021). COVID-19 in racial and ethnic minority groups. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fneed-extra-precautions%2Fracial-ethnic-minorities.html.
- Development of job demands, decision authority and social support in industries with different gender composition - Sweden, 1991-2013.BMC Public Health. 2019; 19: 758-019https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6917-8
- The shortage of registered nurses and some new estimates of the effects of wages on registered nurses labor supply: A look at the past and a preview of the 21st century.Health Policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2003; 64: 349-375https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-8510(02)00197-5
- Race as a predictor of job satisfaction and turnover in US nurses.Journal of Nursing Management. 2017; 25: 207-214https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12460
- COVID-19 exacerbating inequalities in the US.Lancet (London, England). 2020; 2985213R, 395: 1243-1244https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30893-X
- Measuring safety climate in health care.Quality & Safety in Health Care. 2006; 15: 109-115https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2005.014761
- Cumulative risks from stressor exposures and personal risk factors in the workplace: examples from a scoping review.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115850
- Explaining racial/ethnic differences in all-cause mortality in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA): Substantive complexity and hazardous working conditions as mediating factors.SSM - Population Health. 2017; 3: 497-505https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2017.05.010
- Beyond safety outcomes: An investigation of the impact of safety climate on job satisfaction, employee engagement and turnover using social exchange theory as the theoretical framework.Applied Ergonomics. 2016; 55: 248-257https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2015.10.007
- The job content questionnaire (JCQ): An instrument for internationally comparative assessments of psychosocial job characteristics.Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 1998; 3: 322-355https://doi.org/10.1037//1076-89184.108.40.2062
- Impact of nurse burnout on organizational and position turnover.Nursing Outlook. 2021; 69: 96-102https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2020.06.008
- Gender Differences in the Effects of Job Control and Demands on the Health of Korean Manual Workers.Health Care for Women International. 2016; 37: 288-300https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2014.980889
- Work-related perceptions, injuries, and musculoskeletal symptoms: Comparison between U.S.-educated and foreign-educated nurses.Workplace Health & Safety. 2019; 67: 326-337https://doi.org/10.1177/2165079918821699
- Organizational politics, nurses' stress, burnout levels, turnover intention and job satisfaction.International Nursing Review. 2017; 64: 109-116https://doi.org/10.1111/inr.12347
- Safe patient handling legislation and changes in programs, practices, perceptions, and experience of musculoskeletal disorders by hospital characteristics: A repeated cross-sectional survey study.International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2021; 113103791https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103791
- Associations of organizational safety practices and culture with physical workload, perceptions about work, and work-related injury and symptoms among hospital nurses.The Journal of Nursing Administration. 2017; 47: 404-411https://doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000504
- A prospective study of job strain and coronary heart disease in US women.International Journal of Epidemiology. 2002; 31: 1147-1153https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/31.6.1147
- The impact of nurses' health on productivity and quality of care.The Journal of Nursing Administration. 2011; 41: 162-167https://doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0b013e3182118516
- A synthesis of the literature on Asian nurses' work experiences in the United States.Research and Theory for Nursing Practice. 2009; 23: 230-245https://doi.org/10.1891/1541-65220.127.116.11
- The consequences of job stress for nurses' health: time for a check-up.Nursing Outlook. 2005; 53: 291-299https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2005.10.001
- Gender differences in job quality and job satisfaction among doctors in rural western China.BMC Health Services Research. 2017; 17https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2786-y
- Racial/ethnic pay disparities among registered nurses (RNs) in U.S. Hospitals: An econometric regression decomposition.Health Services Research. 2016; 51: 511-529https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.12337
- Effects of nurse work environment on job dissatisfaction, burnout, intention to leave.International Nursing Review. 2017; 64: 91-98https://doi.org/10.1111/inr.12342
National Nurses United. (2021). Sins of Omission: How government failures to track Covid-19 data have led to more than 3,200 health care worker deaths and jeopardize public health.Retrieved from: https://www.nationalnursesunited.org/sites/default/files/nnu/documents/0321_Covid19_SinsOfOmission_Data_Report.pdf.
- Job characteristics and safety climate: The role of effort-reward and demand-control-support models.Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2012; 17: 279-289https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028675
- Work-related health: Organizational factors and well-being.in: Söderback I. International handbook of occupational therapy interventions. Springer, New York, NY2009https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-75424-6_54
- The 2020 National Nursing Workforce Survey.Journal of Nursing Regulation. 2021; 12: S1-S96
- Internationally educated nurses in the United States: Their origins and roles.Nursing Outlook. 2014; 62: 8-15https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2013.05.001
- Perceived racial and ethnic prejudice and discrimination experiences of minority migrant nurses: a literature review.Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society. 2015; 26: 514-520https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659614526757
- mice: Multivariate imputation by chained equations in R.Journal of Statistical Software. 2011; 45 (Retrieved from:): 1-67https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-79953732420&partnerID=40&md5=2ca1881ca1e36a4bf6093577312336d7
- Modern applied statistics with S.Fourth Edition. Springer, 2002
- The shocking cost of turnover in health care.Health Care Management Review. 2010; 35: 206-211https://doi.org/10.1097/HMR.0b013e3181e3940e
- Associations of job strain, stressful life events, and social strain with coronary heart disease in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.Journal of the American Heart Association. 2021; 10e017780https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017780
- Racial and ethnic minority nurses' job satisfaction in the U.S.International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2015; 52: 280-287https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.10.007
- Thirty years of safety climate research: Reflections and future directions.Accident; Analysis and Prevention. 2010; 42: 1517-1522https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.12.019
- Work-family conflict and psychophysical health conditions of nurses: Gender differences and moderating variables.Japan Journal of Nursing Science : JJNS. 2020; 17: e12324https://doi.org/10.1111/jjns.12324
Conflict of interest: All authors have no conflicts of interests.