, a bi-monthly journal, provides innovative ideas for nursing leaders through peer-reviewed articles and timely reports. Each issue examines current issues and trends in nursing practice, education and research, offering progressive solutions to the challenges facing the profession. Nursing Outlook
is the official journal of the American Academy of Nursing (AAN)
and Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science (CANS)
and supports its mission to serve the public and the nursing profession by advancing health policy and practice through the generation, synthesis, and dissemination of nursing knowledge. The journal is included in MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL and the Journal Citation Reports published by Clarivate Analytics.Editor
Marion E. Broome, PhD, RN, FAAN
Dean and Vice Chancellor for Nursing Affairs, Duke University School of Nursing
Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs, Duke University Health System
School of Nursing, Duke University
DUMC 3322, 307 Trent Dr.
Durham. NC 27710
919-684-9444 (phone)[email protected] Editorial Policies Nursing Outlook
welcomes unsolicited manuscripts related to nursing education, practice, research or health care policy. The manuscript must be the sole intellectual property of authors of the paper
. Once accepted, manuscripts become the permanent property of the Journal, and may not be reproduced elsewhere without written permission from the publisher.
Papers written to meet course requirements are not accepted unless they have been edited and conform to the mission and scope of Nursing Outlook
. In general, single site, empirical research studies on clinical and educational topics are not a good fit with the editorial purpose of Nursing Outlook
. These would include studies reporting small scale evaluations of a teaching strategy or intervention with a clinical population. In addition, pilot studies or those with small samples are generally not appropriate for publication in Nursing Outlook. Integrative reviews are not encouraged, as a general rule, but systematic and scoping reviews are. If an integrative review is submitted the rigor and attention to bias in selection of papers and interpretation of findings must be obvious.
If potential authors have a question about the potential fit email inquiries via the website are encouraged.
All manuscripts are accepted for publication with the understanding that they are contributed only to Nursing Outlook
for consideration for publication. SUBMISSION CHECKLIST
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details. Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded:Manuscript with references
• Include keywords
• Follow APA format
• Limit author credentials to 3
• Limit main manuscript to 4500 words
• Include all figures (include relevant captions)
• Limit tables to 4
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in printGraphical Abstracts / Highlights files
(where applicable)Supplemental files
• No more than 4 supplementary files (which will be placed online only)
• Credit statements
• Conflict of interest statement
• Acknowledgment of all funding sources for the work described CREDIT STATEMENT
Authors must include a CREDIT statement that accurately reflects the contributions each author made to the manuscript. Please go here
to see the full list of terms and definitions from which to choose, and please follow the sample CRediT author statement shown there, too.
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
For further information, visit our Support Center
. Ethics in publishing
Please see our information on Ethics in publishing
. Informed consent and patient details
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals
. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission. Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information
All peer reviewers, editorial board members, and editors will disclose and then recuse themselves from working with any submissions where they have any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work as reviewers, editorial board members, or editors. Declaration of generative AI in scientific writing
Where authors use generative artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process, authors should:
• Only use these technologies to improve readability and language, not to replace key researcher tasks such as interpreting data or drawing scientific conclusions.
• Apply the technology with human oversight and control, and carefully review and edit the result, as AI can generate authoritative-sounding output that can be incorrect, incomplete or biased.
• Not list AI and AI-assisted technologies as an author or co-author, or cite AI as an author. Authorship implies responsibilities and tasks that can only be attributed to and performed by humans, as outlined in Elsevier’s AI policy for authors
• Disclose in their manuscript the use of AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by following the instructions below. A statement will appear in the published work. Please note that authors are ultimately responsible and accountable for the contents of the work.
Authors must disclose the use of generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by adding a statement at the end of their manuscript in the core manuscript file, before the References list. The statement should be placed in a new section entitled ‘Declaration of AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process’.Statement: During the preparation of this work the author(s) used [NAME TOOL / SERVICE] in order to [REASON]. After using this tool/service, the author(s) reviewed and edited the content as needed and take(s) full responsibility for the content of the publication.
This declaration does not apply to the use of basic tools for checking grammar, spelling, references etc. If there is nothing to disclose, there is no need to add a statement. Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication
' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out. If accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check
. Preprint posting on SSRN
In support of Open Science
, this journal offers its authors a free preprint posting service. Preprints provide early registration and dissemination of your research, which facilitates early citations and collaboration.
During submission to Editorial Manager, you can choose to release your manuscript publicly as a preprint on the preprint server SSRN
once it enters peer-review with the journal. Your choice will have no effect on the editorial process or outcome with the journal. Please note that the corresponding author is expected to seek approval from all co-authors before agreeing to release the manuscript publicly on SSRN.
You will be notified via email when your preprint is posted online and a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is assigned. Your preprint will remain globally available free to read whether the journal accepts or rejects your manuscript.
For more information about posting to SSRN
. Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive. Reporting sex- and gender-based analysesReporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines
and the SAGER guidelines checklist
. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.Definitions
Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page
offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies. Authorship
Follow the ICMJE guidelines for definition of authorship: "Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published (retrieved from http://www.icmje.org/ethical_1author.html
). Authors of articles submitted to the journal for consideration are reminded that the Corresponding Author is required to be one of the contributing authors (and compliant with the definition of authorship as stated above). Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before
submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before
the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author
: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after
the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum. Article transfer service
This journal uses the Elsevier Article Transfer Service to find the best home for your manuscript. This means that if an editor feels your manuscript is more suitable for an alternative journal, you might be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to such a journal. The recommendation might be provided by a Journal Editor, a dedicated Scientific Managing Editor
, a tool assisted recommendation, or a combination. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred, though you will have the opportunity to make changes to the manuscript before the submission is complete. Please note that your manuscript will be independently reviewed by the new journal. More information
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information
on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission
of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms
for use by authors in these cases.
For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information
). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information
. Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research
published in Elsevier journals. Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this. Open access
Please visit our Open Access page
for more information. Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service
available from Elsevier's Author Services. Submission
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail. Submit your article
Nursing Outlook uses a Web-based online manuscript submission and review system. Please visit https://www.editorialmanager.com/YMNO/default.aspx
to submit your manuscript electronically. General Requirements
Submit one copy of the manuscript and supporting materials (reference list, tables, figures, and figure legends) in electronic format to Nursing Outlook uses a Web-based online manuscript submission and review system. Please visit
. First time corresponding authors will need to register in the system to obtain a user ID and Password. If the corresponding author has previously registered in the system, they may proceed directly to submit paper to begin the submission process. Contact Associate Editor Julia Snethen at [email protected]
if assistance is needed with submitting a manuscript. A copyright release will be required at the time the manuscript is accepted for publication.
Number all pages of the manuscript (including reference list, tables, and figure legends) in the upper right-hand corner of the page, beginning with the title page. Queries
For questions about the editorial process (including the status of manuscripts under review) or for technical support on submissions, please visit our Support Center
. NEW SUBMISSIONS
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately. References
References for the manuscript must be submitted with the paper. The journal follows APA style. Formatting requirements
There are no strict formatting requirements but all data based manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Methods, Findings, Discussion, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes. Divide the article into clearly defined sections. Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table. Peer Review
This journal operates a double anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled by someone other than the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review
. Double anonymized review
This journal uses double anonymized review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information
is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:Title page (with author details):
This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.Anonymized manuscript (no author details):
The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or institutions. REVISED SUBMISSIONS Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier
). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor. Article structure Systematic Reviews
PRISMA guidelines must be followed for systematic reviews and meta-analyses; refer to http://www.equator-network.org/reporting-guidelines/prisma/
for details. The PRISMA checklist available at https://www.equator-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/PRISMA-2009-Checklist-MS-Word.doc
must be included with the submission files.Scoping Reviews
These papers should clearly describe why the topic is appropriate for a scoping review and should follow the PRISMA-S guidelines found at https://www.equator-network.org Randomized Control Trials
CONSORT guidelines must be followed for randomized controlled trials; refer to http://www.consort-statement.org
for details. Outlook and Perspectives Guidelines
•A new feature in Nursing Outlook is the publication of brief thoughts on cutting-edge topics that provide readers with insights into a contemporary issue in the field, including scope, analysis and recommendations.
•Should be scholarly, referenced, and based on evidence but should not include findings of new research or data that have not been previously published. In some cases, new conceptual approaches to studying complex phenomena may also be considered.
•These papers are not policy or position statements on behalf of an expert panel of the AAN or CANS. (Those policy papers should take the usual path to publication outlined by AAN or CANS, and who should be contacted to obtain the process and guidelines.)
•Between 750-1200 words, double-spaced, with up to 6 references. One small figure can be included if important to illustrate an important premise of the paper.
•The editor-in-chief will review the manuscript initially and decide if it is an appropriate fit with the editorial intent of this section.
•Each manuscript will be peer reviewed; revisions may be requested.
Any questions can be addressed to the editor-in-chief, Marion Broome, at [email protected] Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading using APA 7th edition guidelines. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'. Introduction
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background and significance of the issue. This should also include a review of literature to build a case for the study. This section should conclude with a purpose statement. Methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. Subsections for all data-based manuscripts must include design, sample and setting, measures, procedures, and data analyses. Findings
Findings should be clear and concise. Subheadings should be used that allow the reader to easily track back to the aims or research questions of hypotheses earlier in the paper. The subheadings should use variable names, not hypotheses, however. Discussion and Recommendations
In this section you should explore the significance of the findings of the work, not repeat them. Authors should be clear about how this set of findings builds on existing knowledge and extends the knowledge base. Include recommendations for future research policy, and practice, if appropriate. Conclusions
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section. Appendices
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc. Essential title page information
Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations.
Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Credentials are limited to 3 per author. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author.
Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address.
If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Authors who are doctoral candidates must not use the PhD(c) or DNP(c) notation until they have successfully completed all requirements for their degree and have been approved for the final degree designation (ie PhD or DNP). If this is used the notation will be edited during copy editing. The credential PhD (c) is not accepted as an appropriate degree. Give the complete mailing address, business and home telephone numbers, fax number, and e-mail address of the author to whom correspondence and galley proofs should be directed. If applicable, include a brief acknowledgment of grants or other financial assistance Highlights
Highlights are mandatory for this journal as they help increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights
Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). At least one of the highlights reflect the policy implications of the article. Abstract
A structured abstract of approximately 150 words in length including the headers background
, and discussion
for database papers or a summary abstract of approximately 150 words for database papers should be typed double-spaced on a separate sheet of paper after the title page. No abstract is required for Outlook and Perspectives, letters to the editor, or commentaries invited by the editor. Abbreviations
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.). Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI. Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Artwork Electronic artworkGeneral points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork
is available.You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here. Formats
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required. Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content. Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article
. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork
. Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not
on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Tables
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables should be placed either next to the relevant text in the article. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place the title of the table and any table notes below the table body. Do not include text with the title that is already in the findings section. If 1-2 sentences are required to explain the table, be concise. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells. Please limit to 4 tables only.
Print issues do not use color, so your table contents and legends should not rely on color for interpretation. References Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
References for papers must be from reputable and non-predatory journals. According to Beall (2016) predatory journals and publishers are those that exploit the gold open-access model to profit from scholarly publishing in a dishonest way (p. 3). Beall, J. (2016). Essential Information about Predatory Publishers and Journals. INTERNATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION, 86, p. 2-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2016.86.9358
Authors are to ensure that all references used in the manuscripts are from reputable sources. Strategies for ensuring publications are from reputable journals (Oermann, et al., 2018) include: Checking to see if the journal that is being referenced is in Medline (go to PubMed, search for journal - see link on right side, and confirm it is indexed in Medline - not PubMed). If the journal is in Medline, it is not predatory. You may not be able to rely on PubMed because they have journals in the database that are questionable.
Review the following: The Directory of Nursing Journals 1st when looking at journals (journals are vetted).
Also search in Journal/Author Name Estimator (JANE), which now designates journals that are in Medline. (see URL below).
Directory of Nursing Journals http://nursingeditors.com/journals-directory/
Journal/Author Name Estimator (JANE) http://jane.biosemantics.org/
PubMed: search journals database https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals
Beall's list of predatory is almost 2 years old, but the link still lists predatory journals: https://web.archive.org/web/20170111172309/https://scholarlyoa.com/individual-journals/
Oermann, M. H., Nicoll, L. H., Chinn, P. L., Ashton, K. S., Conklin, J. L., Edie, A. H., Amarasekara, S., and Williams, B. L. (2018). Quality of articles published in predatory nursing journals. Nursing Outlook, 66, 4-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2017.05.005 Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, Crossref and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper. Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article. Preprint references
Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided. References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue. Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles
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. Reference styleText:
Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-3215-4, copies of which may be ordered online
references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication. Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., & Lupton, R. A. (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163
, 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sc.2010.00372.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., & Lupton, R. A. (2018). The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon
, Article e00205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00205.
Reference to a book:
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style
(4th ed.). Longman (Chapter 4).
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age
(pp. 281–304). E-Publishing Inc.
Reference to a website:
Powertech Systems. (2015). Lithium-ion vs lead-acid cost analysis
. Retrieved from http://www.powertechsystems.eu/home/tech-corner/lithium-ion-vs-lead-acid-cost-analysis/.
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., & Nakashizuka, T. (2015). Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions
. Mendeley Data, v1. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Reference to a conference paper or poster presentation:
Engle, E.K., Cash, T.F., & Jarry, J.L. (2009, November). The Body Image Behaviours Inventory-3: Development and validation of the Body Image Compulsive Actions and Body Image Avoidance Scales
. Poster session presentation at the meeting of the Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, New York, NY. Video
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This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data
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For supported data repositories
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